DS.Store

The store contains all of the data for records loaded from the server. It is also responsible for creating instances of DS.Model that wrap the individual data for a record, so that they can be bound to in your Handlebars templates.

Define your application's store like this:

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import DS from 'ember-data';

export default DS.Store.extend({
});

Most Ember.js applications will only have a single DS.Store that is automatically created by their Ember.Application.

You can retrieve models from the store in several ways. To retrieve a record for a specific id, use DS.Store's findRecord() method:

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store.findRecord('person', 123).then(function (person) {
});

By default, the store will talk to your backend using a standard REST mechanism. You can customize how the store talks to your backend by specifying a custom adapter:

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import DS from 'ember-data';

export default DS.Adapter.extend({
});

You can learn more about writing a custom adapter by reading the DS.Adapter documentation.

Store createRecord() vs. push() vs. pushPayload()

The store provides multiple ways to create new record objects. They have some subtle differences in their use which are detailed below:

createRecord is used for creating new records on the client side. This will return a new record in the created.uncommitted state. In order to persist this record to the backend you will need to call record.save().

push is used to notify Ember Data's store of new or updated records that exist in the backend. This will return a record in the loaded.saved state. The primary use-case for store#push is to notify Ember Data about record updates (full or partial) that happen outside of the normal adapter methods (for example SSE or Web Sockets).

pushPayload is a convenience wrapper for store#push that will deserialize payloads if the Serializer implements a pushPayload method.

Note: When creating a new record using any of the above methods Ember Data will update DS.RecordArrays such as those returned by store#peekAll() or store#findAll(). This means any data bindings or computed properties that depend on the RecordArray will automatically be synced to include the new or updated record values.

Show:

modelName
String
returns
DS.Adapter

Returns an instance of the adapter for a given type. For example, adapterFor('person') will return an instance of App.PersonAdapter.

If no App.PersonAdapter is found, this method will look for an App.ApplicationAdapter (the default adapter for your entire application).

If no App.ApplicationAdapter is found, it will return the value of the defaultAdapter.

modelName
String
inputProperties
Object
a hash of properties to set on the newly created record.
returns
DS.Model
record

Create a new record in the current store. The properties passed to this method are set on the newly created record.

To create a new instance of a Post:

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store.createRecord('post', {
  title: 'Rails is omakase'
});

To create a new instance of a Post that has a relationship with a User record:

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let user = this.store.peekRecord('user', 1);
store.createRecord('post', {
  title: 'Rails is omakase',
  user: user
});
record
DS.Model

For symmetry, a record can be deleted via the store.

Example

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let post = store.createRecord('post', {
  title: 'Rails is omakase'
});

store.deleteRecord(post);
modelName
String
options
Object
returns
Promise
promise

findAll asks the adapter's findAll method to find the records for the given type, and returns a promise which will resolve with all records of this type present in the store, even if the adapter only returns a subset of them.

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model(params) {
    return this.store.findAll('author');
  }
});

When the returned promise resolves depends on the reload behavior, configured via the passed options hash and the result of the adapter's shouldReloadAll method.

Reloading

If { reload: true } is passed or adapter.shouldReloadAll evaluates to true, then the returned promise resolves once the adapter returns data, regardless if there are already records in the store:

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store.push({
  data: {
    id: 'first',
    type: 'author'
  }
});

// adapter#findAll resolves with
// [
//   {
//     id: 'second',
//     type: 'author'
//   }
// ]
store.findAll('author', { reload: true }).then(function(authors) {
  authors.getEach('id'); // ['first', 'second']
});

If no reload is indicated via the abovementioned ways, then the promise immediately resolves with all the records currently loaded in the store.

Background Reloading

Optionally, if adapter.shouldBackgroundReloadAll evaluates to true, then a background reload is started. Once this resolves, the array with which the promise resolves, is updated automatically so it contains all the records in the store:

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// app/adapters/application.js
export default DS.Adapter.extend({
  shouldReloadAll(store, snapshotsArray) {
    return false;
  },

  shouldBackgroundReloadAll(store, snapshotsArray) {
    return true;
  }
});

// ...

store.push({
  data: {
    id: 'first',
    type: 'author'
  }
});

let allAuthors;
store.findAll('author').then(function(authors) {
  authors.getEach('id'); // ['first']

  allAuthors = authors;
});

// later, once adapter#findAll resolved with
// [
//   {
//     id: 'second',
//     type: 'author'
//   }
// ]

allAuthors.getEach('id'); // ['first', 'second']

If you would like to force or prevent background reloading, you can set a boolean value for backgroundReload in the options object for findAll.

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model() {
    return this.store.findAll('post', { backgroundReload: false });
  }
});

If you pass an object on the adapterOptions property of the options argument it will be passed to you adapter via the snapshotRecordArray

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model(params) {
    return this.store.findAll('post', {
      adapterOptions: { subscribe: false }
    });
  }
});
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import MyCustomAdapter from './custom-adapter';

export default MyCustomAdapter.extend({
  findAll(store, type, sinceToken, snapshotRecordArray) {
    if (snapshotRecordArray.adapterOptions.subscribe) {
      // ...
    }
    // ...
  }
});

See peekAll to get an array of current records in the store, without waiting until a reload is finished.

If you use an adapter such as Ember's default JSONAPIAdapter that supports the JSON API specification and if your server endpoint supports the use of an 'include' query parameter, you can use findAll() to automatically retrieve additional records related to those requested by supplying an include parameter in the options object.

For example, given a post model that has a hasMany relationship with a comment model, when we retrieve all of the post records we can have the server also return all of the posts' comments in the same request:

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model() {
   return this.store.findAll('post', { include: 'comments' });
  }
});

Multiple relationships can be requested using an include parameter consisting of a comma-separated list (without white-space) while nested relationships can be specified using a dot-separated sequence of relationship names. So to request both the posts' comments and the authors of those comments the request would look like this:

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model() {
   return this.store.findAll('post', { include: 'comments,comments.author' });
  }
});

See query to only get a subset of records from the server.

modelName
String
id
(String|Integer)
options
Object
returns
Promise
promise

This method returns a record for a given type and id combination.

The findRecord method will always resolve its promise with the same object for a given type and id.

The findRecord method will always return a promise that will be resolved with the record.

Example

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model(params) {
    return this.store.findRecord('post', params.post_id);
  }
});

If the record is not yet available, the store will ask the adapter's find method to find the necessary data. If the record is already present in the store, it depends on the reload behavior when the returned promise resolves.

Preloading

You can optionally preload specific attributes and relationships that you know of by passing them via the passed options.

For example, if your Ember route looks like /posts/1/comments/2 and your API route for the comment also looks like /posts/1/comments/2 if you want to fetch the comment without fetching the post you can pass in the post to the findRecord call:

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store.findRecord('comment', 2, { preload: { post: 1 } });

If you have access to the post model you can also pass the model itself:

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store.findRecord('post', 1).then(function (myPostModel) {
  store.findRecord('comment', 2, { post: myPostModel });
});

Reloading

The reload behavior is configured either via the passed options hash or the result of the adapter's shouldReloadRecord.

If { reload: true } is passed or adapter.shouldReloadRecord evaluates to true, then the returned promise resolves once the adapter returns data, regardless if the requested record is already in the store:

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store.push({
  data: {
    id: 1,
    type: 'post',
    revision: 1
  }
});

// adapter#findRecord resolves with
// [
//   {
//     id: 1,
//     type: 'post',
//     revision: 2
//   }
// ]
store.findRecord('post', 1, { reload: true }).then(function(post) {
  post.get('revision'); // 2
});

If no reload is indicated via the abovementioned ways, then the promise immediately resolves with the cached version in the store.

Background Reloading

Optionally, if adapter.shouldBackgroundReloadRecord evaluates to true, then a background reload is started, which updates the records' data, once it is available:

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// app/adapters/post.js
import ApplicationAdapter from "./application";

export default ApplicationAdapter.extend({
  shouldReloadRecord(store, snapshot) {
    return false;
  },

  shouldBackgroundReloadRecord(store, snapshot) {
    return true;
  }
});

// ...

store.push({
  data: {
    id: 1,
    type: 'post',
    revision: 1
  }
});

let blogPost = store.findRecord('post', 1).then(function(post) {
  post.get('revision'); // 1
});

// later, once adapter#findRecord resolved with
// [
//   {
//     id: 1,
//     type: 'post',
//     revision: 2
//   }
// ]

blogPost.get('revision'); // 2

If you would like to force or prevent background reloading, you can set a boolean value for backgroundReload in the options object for findRecord.

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model(params) {
    return this.store.findRecord('post', params.post_id, { backgroundReload: false });
  }
});

If you pass an object on the adapterOptions property of the options argument it will be passed to you adapter via the snapshot

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model(params) {
    return this.store.findRecord('post', params.post_id, {
      adapterOptions: { subscribe: false }
    });
  }
});
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import MyCustomAdapter from './custom-adapter';

export default MyCustomAdapter.extend({
  findRecord(store, type, id, snapshot) {
    if (snapshot.adapterOptions.subscribe) {
      // ...
    }
    // ...
  }
});

See peekRecord to get the cached version of a record.

If you use an adapter such as Ember's default JSONAPIAdapter that supports the JSON API specification and if your server endpoint supports the use of an 'include' query parameter, you can use findRecord() to automatically retrieve additional records related to the one you request by supplying an include parameter in the options object.

For example, given a post model that has a hasMany relationship with a comment model, when we retrieve a specific post we can have the server also return that post's comments in the same request:

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model(params) {
   return this.store.findRecord('post', params.post_id, { include: 'comments' });
  }
});

In this case, the post's comments would then be available in your template as model.comments.

Multiple relationships can be requested using an include parameter consisting of a comma-separated list (without white-space) while nested relationships can be specified using a dot-separated sequence of relationship names. So to request both the post's comments and the authors of those comments the request would look like this:

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import Ember from 'ember';

export default Ember.Route.extend({
  model(params) {
   return this.store.findRecord('post', params.post_id, { include: 'comments,comments.author' });
  }
});
modelName
String
id
String|Integer
returns
RecordReference

Get the reference for the specified record.

Example

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let userRef = store.getReference('user', 1);

// check if the user is loaded
let isLoaded = userRef.value() !== null;

// get the record of the reference (null if not yet available)
let user = userRef.value();

// get the identifier of the reference
if (userRef.remoteType() === 'id') {
let id = userRef.id();
}

// load user (via store.find)
userRef.load().then(...)

// or trigger a reload
userRef.reload().then(...)

// provide data for reference
userRef.push({ id: 1, username: '@user' }).then(function(user) {
  userRef.value() === user;
});
modelName
String
id
(String|Integer)
returns
Boolean

This method returns true if a record for a given modelName and id is already loaded in the store. Use this function to know beforehand if a findRecord() will result in a request or that it will be a cache hit.

Example

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store.hasRecordForId('post', 1); // false
store.findRecord('post', 1).then(function() {
  store.hasRecordForId('post', 1); // true
});
modelName
String
returns
DS.Model

Returns the model class for the particular modelName.

The class of a model might be useful if you want to get a list of all the relationship names of the model, see relationshipNames for example.

modelName
String
The name of the model type for this payload
payload
Object
returns
Object
The normalized payload

normalize converts a json payload into the normalized form that push expects.

Example

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socket.on('message', function(message) {
  let modelName = message.model;
  let data = message.data;
  store.push(store.normalize(modelName, data));
});
modelName
String
returns
DS.RecordArray

This method returns a filtered array that contains all of the known records for a given type in the store.

Note that because it's just a filter, the result will contain any locally created records of the type, however, it will not make a request to the backend to retrieve additional records. If you would like to request all the records from the backend please use store.findAll.

Also note that multiple calls to peekAll for a given type will always return the same RecordArray.

Example

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let localPosts = store.peekAll('post');
modelName
String
id
String|Integer
returns
DS.Model|null
record

Get a record by a given type and ID without triggering a fetch.

This method will synchronously return the record if it is available in the store, otherwise it will return null. A record is available if it has been fetched earlier, or pushed manually into the store.

See findRecord if you would like to request this record from the backend.

Note: This is a synchronous method and does not return a promise.

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let post = store.peekRecord('post', 1);

post.get('id'); // 1
data
Object
returns
DS.Model|Array
the record(s) that was created or updated.

Push some data for a given type into the store.

This method expects normalized JSON API document. This means you have to follow JSON API specification with few minor adjustments:

  • record's type should always be in singular, dasherized form
  • members (properties) should be camelCased

Your primary data should be wrapped inside data property:

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store.push({
  data: {
    // primary data for single record of type `Person`
    id: '1',
    type: 'person',
    attributes: {
      firstName: 'Daniel',
      lastName: 'Kmak'
    }
  }
});

Demo.

data property can also hold an array (of records):

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store.push({
  data: [
    // an array of records
    {
      id: '1',
      type: 'person',
      attributes: {
        firstName: 'Daniel',
        lastName: 'Kmak'
      }
    },
    {
      id: '2',
      type: 'person',
      attributes: {
        firstName: 'Tom',
        lastName: 'Dale'
      }
    }
  ]
});

Demo.

There are some typical properties for JSONAPI payload:

  • id - mandatory, unique record's key
  • type - mandatory string which matches model's dasherized name in singular form
  • attributes - object which holds data for record attributes - DS.attr's declared in model
  • relationships - object which must contain any of the following properties under each relationships' respective key (example path is relationships.achievements.data):
    • links
    • data - place for primary data
    • meta - object which contains meta-information about relationship

For this model:

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import DS from 'ember-data';

export default DS.Model.extend({
  firstName: DS.attr('string'),
  lastName: DS.attr('string'),

  children: DS.hasMany('person')
});

To represent the children as IDs:

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{
  data: {
    id: '1',
    type: 'person',
    attributes: {
      firstName: 'Tom',
      lastName: 'Dale'
    },
    relationships: {
      children: {
        data: [
          {
            id: '2',
            type: 'person'
          },
          {
            id: '3',
            type: 'person'
          },
          {
            id: '4',
            type: 'person'
          }
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}

Demo.

To represent the children relationship as a URL:

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{
  data: {
    id: '1',
    type: 'person',
    attributes: {
      firstName: 'Tom',
      lastName: 'Dale'
    },
    relationships: {
      children: {
        links: {
          related: '/people/1/children'
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

If you're streaming data or implementing an adapter, make sure that you have converted the incoming data into this form. The store's normalize method is a convenience helper for converting a json payload into the form Ember Data expects.

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store.push(store.normalize('person', data));

This method can be used both to push in brand new records, as well as to update existing records.

modelName
String
Optionally, a model type used to determine which serializer will be used
inputPayload
Object

Push some raw data into the store.

This method can be used both to push in brand new records, as well as to update existing records. You can push in more than one type of object at once. All objects should be in the format expected by the serializer.

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import DS from 'ember-data';

export default DS.ActiveModelSerializer;
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let pushData = {
  posts: [
    { id: 1, post_title: "Great post", comment_ids: [2] }
  ],
  comments: [
    { id: 2, comment_body: "Insightful comment" }
  ]
}

store.pushPayload(pushData);

By default, the data will be deserialized using a default serializer (the application serializer if it exists).

Alternatively, pushPayload will accept a model type which will determine which serializer will process the payload.

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import DS from 'ember-data';

export default DS.ActiveModelSerializer;
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import DS from 'ember-data';

export default DS.JSONSerializer;
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store.pushPayload('comment', pushData); // Will use the application serializer
store.pushPayload('post', pushData); // Will use the post serializer
modelName
String
query
Any
an opaque query to be used by the adapter
returns
Promise
promise

This method delegates a query to the adapter. This is the one place where adapter-level semantics are exposed to the application.

Each time this method is called a new request is made through the adapter.

Exposing queries this way seems preferable to creating an abstract query language for all server-side queries, and then require all adapters to implement them.


If you do something like this:

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store.query('person', { page: 1 });

The call made to the server, using a Rails backend, will look something like this:

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Started GET "/api/v1/person?page=1"
Processing by Api::V1::PersonsController#index as HTML
Parameters: { "page"=>"1" }

If you do something like this:

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store.query('person', { ids: [1, 2, 3] });

The call to the server, using a Rails backend, will look something like this:

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Started GET "/api/v1/person?ids%5B%5D=1&ids%5B%5D=2&ids%5B%5D=3"
Processing by Api::V1::PersonsController#index as HTML
Parameters: { "ids" => ["1", "2", "3"] }

This method returns a promise, which is resolved with an AdapterPopulatedRecordArray once the server returns.

modelName
String
query
Any
an opaque query to be used by the adapter
returns
Promise
promise which resolves with the found record or `null`

This method makes a request for one record, where the id is not known beforehand (if the id is known, use findRecord instead).

This method can be used when it is certain that the server will return a single object for the primary data.

Each time this method is called a new request is made through the adapter.

Let's assume our API provides an endpoint for the currently logged in user via:

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// GET /api/current_user
{
  user: {
    id: 1234,
    username: 'admin'
  }
}

Since the specific id of the user is not known beforehand, we can use queryRecord to get the user:

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store.queryRecord('user', {}).then(function(user) {
  let username = user.get('username');
  console.log(`Currently logged in as ${username}`);
});

The request is made through the adapters' queryRecord:

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import DS from 'ember-data';

export default DS.Adapter.extend({
  queryRecord(modelName, query) {
    return Ember.$.getJSON('/api/current_user');
  }
});

Note: the primary use case for store.queryRecord is when a single record is queried and the id is not known beforehand. In all other cases store.query and using the first item of the array is likely the preferred way:

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// GET /users?username=unique
{
  data: [{
    id: 1234,
    type: 'user',
    attributes: {
      username: "unique"
    }
  }]
}
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store.query('user', { username: 'unique' }).then(function(users) {
  return users.get('firstObject');
}).then(function(user) {
  let id = user.get('id');
});

This method returns a promise, which resolves with the found record.

If the adapter returns no data for the primary data of the payload, then queryRecord resolves with null:

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// GET /users?username=unique
{
  data: null
}
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store.queryRecord('user', { username: 'unique' }).then(function(user) {
  console.log(user); // null
});
modelName
String
the record to serialize
returns
DS.Serializer

Returns an instance of the serializer for a given type. For example, serializerFor('person') will return an instance of App.PersonSerializer.

If no App.PersonSerializer is found, this method will look for an App.ApplicationSerializer (the default serializer for your entire application).

if no App.ApplicationSerializer is found, it will attempt to get the defaultSerializer from the PersonAdapter (adapterFor('person')).

If a serializer cannot be found on the adapter, it will fall back to an instance of DS.JSONSerializer.

modelName
String

This method unloads all records in the store. It schedules unloading to happen during the next run loop.

Optionally you can pass a type which unload all records for a given type.

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store.unloadAll();
store.unloadAll('post');
record
DS.Model

For symmetry, a record can be unloaded via the store. This will cause the record to be destroyed and freed up for garbage collection.

Example

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store.findRecord('post', 1).then(function(post) {
  store.unloadRecord(post);
});